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About Jalanidhi Project

Government of Kerala was a signatory State on the Cochin Declaration that brought in reforms in rural water supply sector in the Country. Subsequent to Cochin Declaration in 1999, Government of Kerala successfully negotiated a rural water supply and sanitation project with loan funding from the World Bank. This project has been subsequently renamed ‘Jalanidhi’. It introduced some reforms in the rural water supply sector and is based on principles such as demand responsiveness, community ownership and sustainability of investments through cost recovery and participatory operations and management. The institutional architecture of Jalanidhi partners Gram Panchayaths, Beneficiary communities, Government of Kerala and NGOs acting as supporting organisations. The Jalanidhi model of rural water supply schemes has successfully demonstrated an equitable, inclusive and decentralized delivery system benefiting the SC, ST and BPL category of rural households in Kerala.

Jalanidhi was launched in four of the 14 districts of Kerala. It was subsequently scaled up to the whole State. 3710 water supply schemes were implemented and commissioned and are run by communities. The Project worked with 112 Gram Panchayaths and 52 Support Organizations. , Of the 3710 schemes, 16 were fairly larger, each of it covering 500+ Households. The Jalanidhi project has also tried new institutional water supply experiments, partnering Kerala Water Authority, the Public Sector Water Utility of Kerala State. Wide variety of technology options ranging from surface open wells, bore wells, ponds, Lakes, River based sources and rainwater harvesting were used in the project. Jalanidhi-1 was implemented during the period 2000-2008.

The overall experience of Jalanidhi–I was considered satisfactory on all fronts project preparation, design, quality of entry, implementation arrangements, monitoring and evaluation, compliance with environmental and social safeguards, fiduciary management and procurement. The project’s sustainability prospects were assessed as ‘good’, and overall performance of BGs in managing watsan facilities as ‘excellent’. Also, as an implementing agency in Jalanidhi–I, the KRWSA showed its capacity to deliver satisfactory performance. The KRWSA’s functioning was marked by: strong ownership of project principles; commitment of diverse and multi-disciplinary staff; emphasis on forging collaboration with GPs, SOs and user groups; adopting scheme cycle approach for activity sequencing; developing and managing an excellent M&E system; field-based capacity building programmes; and regular learning. Other implementing agencies like beneficiary groups (who demonstrated high level of interest, ownership and capacity) and GPs (who provided support to beneficiary groups) too performed satisfactorily.

Jalanidhi- Phase –I Achievements

  • Water Supply Scheme Commissioned – 3694
  • Large water supply scheme Commissioned 16
  • Households covered 1.92 lakhs
  • Population Covered – 11.09 Lakhs
  • New Latrines – 68023
  • Deep Latrines converted – 24194
  • Environment Management Units- 89319
  • Drainage constructed  - 68362 M
  • RWH Units constructed 13304


Jalanidhi-II is a sequel to the Jalanidhi-I. The World Bank approved a credit amount of US $155.3 million (credit No. 5027-1 N) for implementing the project for a total estimate of ` 1022.30 Cr.  Project agreements were signed on 12th February 2012 and it is effective from 17.04.2012.
It is targeted to complete the entire project by the end of 2018. The project aims to cover about 18 lakh rural population for water supply & sanitation services. The project will cover more than 200 Grama Panchayaths of Kerala. Grama Panchayaths were selected from the neediest 8 districts of Kerala based on a set of criteria.

The main components of the programme:

  • Water Supply Scheme including rehabilitation of single GP KWA schemes (3938 schemes)
  • Multi GP KWA rehabilitation  ( 5 schemes )
  • Preparation & Development of water security  plan for the GPs
  • Ground Water Recharge (Check dams, percolation tank, nala bund, point recharge well, drilling tank, etc.,  in 200  GPs)
  • Environment Sanitation (Solid/liquid waste management- Community biogas (1500 Nos.),  HH level compost units (18000 Nos), drainage (136 Nos), HH level biogas ( 2700 Nos), plastic recycling & shredding units (30 Nos), piloting  latrine solution for water logged areas (15 Nos), piloting regional septage (1 No), Pay and use toilet (100 Nos)
  • Tribal development programmes in 22 GPs (Implementation of above components)